Henry MONTAGUE

(1st E. Manchester)

Born: ABT 1563

Died: 7 Nov 1642

Buried: Kimbolton

Father: Edward MONTAGUE of Boughton Castle (Sir Knight)

Mother: Elizabeth HARRINGTON

Married 1: Catherine SPENCER 1 Jun 1601

Children:

1. Edward MONTAGUE (2 E. Manchester)

2. Walter MONTAGUE

3. Charles MONTAGUE

4. James MONTAGUE

5. Elizabeth MONTAGUE

6. Lucy MONTAGUE

7. Theodosia MONTAGUE

Married 2: Anne WINCOTT (d. 1642) (dau. of William Wincot of Langham and Dau. Vaughan) (w. of Sir Leonard Halliday, Lord Mayor of London) 1613

Married 3: Margaret CROUCH (C. Manchester) (dau. of John Crouch of Corneybury) (w.1 of Allen Elvine - w.2 of John Hare) 26 Apr 1620

Children:

8. Susan MONTAGUE

9. Henry MONTAGUE

10. George MONTAGUE

11. Dau. MONTAGUE


The details in this biography come from the History of Parliament, a biographical dictionary of Members of the House of Commons.

Born ABT 1563, at Boughton, third son of Sir Edward Montague of Boughton, by Elizabeth, dau. of James Harington of Exton, co. Rutland, and brother of James, Sidney and Edward. Educ. Christ's, Camb. 1583; M. Temple 1585; called 1592. Married first, 1 Jun 1601, Catherine, dau. of Sir William Spencer of Yarnton, by Margaret, dau. of Francis Bowyer, of Middlesex; second, 1613, Anne, dau. of William Wincot of Langham, Suff., wid. of Sir Leonard Halliday, Lord Mayor of London; and third, 26 Apr 1620, Margaret, da. of John Crouch of Corneybury, Herts., wid. of Allen Elvine, leatherseller, and of John Hare, Clerk of the Court of Wards. M.P. for Higham Ferrers, 1593, 1597-8 and 1601; for London City, 1604-11 and 1614; Kntd. 23 Jul 1603, at the Coronation of James I; cr. Baron Kimbolton and Visct. Mandeville 19 Dec 1620; A Commissioner for the funeral of King James, 1625, and to hear claims at the Coronation, 2 Feb 1626. He was created Earl of Manchester 5 Feb 1625/6, and took his seat 18 Feb. Recorder, London 1603-16; reader, M. Temple 1606; KC 1607; serjeant-at-law 1611; King's sergeant 1611; l.c.j. King's bench 1616-20; PC 15 Dec 1620; Lord High Treasurer Dec 1620 to Sep 1621; 1st commr. of gt. seal May-Jul 1621; pres. of council 1621-8; master of ct. of wards 1624; chief commr. for Virginia inquiry 1624; ld. lt. Hunts. 1624; ld. privy seal 4 Jul 1628-d.; council for colonies 1634; high steward Camb. Univ. 1634-d.; commr. Treasury 1635-d.; commr. regency Sep 1640, Aug-Nov 1641. Speaker of the House of Lords, by commission, 15 Feb 1628/9, 3 Dec 1641, and 14-24 May 1642; Lord Lieutenant of Hunts., 21 Jul 1627. He had a grant in fee of the Park and Forest of Waybridge, Hunts., 1631-2. High Steward of the Univ. of Cambridge, 1634 till his death. A Commissioner of Treasury, 1635-42, and a Commissioner of Regency, Sep 1640 and Aug to Nov 1641. He was on numerous other commissions: On 19 May 1625 he was joint Commissioner to inquire into the wool trade; on 15 Feb 1626/7 Chief Commissioner as to offices and places innovated since 11 Elizabeth; on 15 Apr 1630 Chief Commissioner to execute the office of Justice in Eyre on this side Trent; on 2 Oct 1630 Chief Commissioner to enter the house of Sir Robert Cotton and examine and note all documents, &c., as may concern the King or State; on 15 Dec 1637 Chief Commissioner to examine the claim of Roger Stafford to be Lord Stafford. See Patent Rolls. In 1636 he was also a joint Commissioner as to building in Westminster, and in 1638 for repairs, &c., of the Tower of London (Rymer, vol. xx, pp. 10, 237).

His return for Higham Ferrers may be explained by his family's standing and connexions in Northamptonshire. In 1597 he was named to two committees concerning private transactions (25 Nov, 9 Dec). He was probably the Mr. Montague who was appointed to committees concerning defence (8 Dec), tillage (13 Dec) and soldiers and mariners (20 Dec), although his brother Edward's presence in this Parliament makes complete certainty impossible. The same problem of identity exists in 1601, but is complicated still further by the presence in the Commons of the younger brother Sidney. However, Henry was named to the following committees: private business (9 Dec), letters patent (11 Dec) and the Belgrave privilege case (17 Dec). He reported a committee on Exchequer reform on 25 Nov (a Mr. Montague presumably Henry was appointed to a committee on Exchequer reform on the same day), and he also reported the committee concerning soldiers and mariners (11 Dec). He spoke on the subsidy on 7 Nov, and two days later Mr. Montague of the Middle Temple argued against Serjeant Hele in the subsidy debate. It is highly likely that it was Henry:

'... if all the preambles of the subsidies were looked upon, he [Hele] should find that [the subsidy] was of free gift. And although her Majesty requireth this at our hands, yet it is in us to give, not in her to exact of duty...'

On 19 Nov he spoke in support of a bill to prevent the export of bullion. Two committees concerning the order of business (3 Nov) and a private bill (28 Nov) may have been attended by Henry, and he was also probably responsible for two speeches on monopolies the first on 20 Nov:

'The matter is good and honest and I like this manner of proceeding by bill well enough in this matter. The grievances are great, and I would only note but thus much unto you, that the last Parliament we proceeded by way of petition, which had no successful effect'

The second on 23 Nov:

'Mr. Speaker I am loth to speak what I know lest perhaps I should displease. The prerogative royal is that which is now in question and which the laws of the land have ever showed and maintained. My motion then shall be but this: that we may be suitors unto her Majesty, that the patentees shall have no other remedies than by the laws of the realm they may have and that our Act may be drawn accordingly'.

Harisson, in 'A Jacobean Journal' illustrates the arrival of James I from Scotland to London using a speech by Henry on 15 Mar 1604:

`High Imperial Majesty, it is not yet a year in days since with acclamations of the people, citizens and nobles, auspiciously here at this Cross was proclaimed your true succession to the Crown. If it was joyous then with hats, hands and hearts lift to heaven, to cry King James, what is it now to see King James? Come therefore, O worthiest of Kings, as a glorious bridegroom through your royal chamber; but to come nearer, Adest quem quaerimus. Twenty and more are the Sovereigns we have served since our Conquest, but conquerors of hearts, it is you, and your posterity, that we have vowed to love, and wish to serve, whilst London is a City. In pledge whereof, My Lord Mayor, the Aldermen and commons of this City, wishing a golden reign unto you, present your Greatness with a little cup of gold'

The oration being ended, three cups of gold were given in the name of the Lord Mayor and the whole of the City to the King, the Queen, and the young Prince.

Harrison also contains a description of the execution of Henry Garnet, the head of the Jesuits in England. Garnet was executed for the Gunpowder Plot, which was seen as a Catholic conspiracy to overthrow Protestant England. He was executed 3-May-1606. Henry Garnet was drawn from the Tower to the scaffold where the Recorder of London, Henry Montague, was present.

Ordered execution of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1618. Close ally of the Countess of Castlehaven's mother; father-in-law to Warwick's daughter.

One of King Charles I's most trusted advisors. One of the guardians of the realm during the kings absence in Scotland; 1641. Applied the law equally to both Puritan and Papist. His son Edward became a Parliamentarian, in direct opposition of his father. Son Walter became a Catholic - also opposing his father - in the coming conflict of the Civil War.

Henry was a good friend and close political ally of Francis Bacon. Francis Bacon is considered by many to be the first modern philosopher of science, that is, to have first synthesized and explicated the modern idea of science. Francis Bacon and Henry formed a political duo at the highest levels of power. One of the problems here is that Francis Bacon and Sir Edward Coke were bitter enemies, with both trying to excel in a political environment dominated by Buckingham's influence over the King. The King had become openly homosexual by this point and Buckingham was his favorite, a troubled situation that would have considerable historical impact.

He died 7 Nov 1642, aged about 80, and was buried at Kimbolton. M.I. Will dat. 22 Mar 1641/2. Admon. (with will annexed, the widow, &., renouncing) 15 Mar 1644/5. His widow was buried 29 Dec 1653, at Totteridge. Her will pr. 31 Jan 1653/4. His eldest son was prominent on the parliamentary side in the civil war.

Sources:

DNB

Mathews: Francis Bacon

Harrison: A Jacobean Journal

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