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(3rd B. Cromwell of Oakham)

Born: ABT 1559

Died: 27 Apr 1607, Ireland

Father: Henry CROMWELL (2į B. Cromwell of Oakham)

Mother: Mary PAULET (B. Cromwell of Oakham)

Married 1: Elizabeth UPTON (d. 5 Jan 1593 - bur. Launde Abbey) (dau. of William Upton of Puslinch, Devon and Mary Kirkham) 1581


1. Elizabeth CROMWELL

Married 2: Frances RUGGE (d. BEF 30 Nov 1631) (dau. of William Rugge and Thomasine Townshend) ABT 1593


2. Frances CROMWELL


4. Thomas CROMWELL (1ļ E. Ardglass)

Edward Cromwell was born in 1560. His father was Henry Lord Cromwell and his mother was Mary, the eldest daughter of John Paulet, marquis of Winchester and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of the 2nd Lord Willoughby. Edward had two aunts, Frances, married Edward Stroude of Devonshire; and Catherine, married Sir John Stroude of Parnham in Dorset. He also had two uncles, Edward and Thomas. The uncle Thomas was a successful Member of Parliament and wrote a journal, housed at Trinity College, Dublin, recording the proceedings of Parliament during Elizabethís reign. Edward Cromwell had one younger brother, Gregory Cromwell, knight, and a sister, Catherine.

Catherine Cromwell married Sir Lionel, Lord Tollemache of Helmingham, Suffolk, Godson to Queen Elizabeth and ancestor by Catherine to the Earls of Dysart. They had four children, Anne, Mary, Catherine and Lionel. While on a Royal progress Queen Elizabeth was entertained at Helmingham by Catherine and her husband. During the entertainments the Queen presented Lord Tollemache with her Orpharion. This beautiful musical instrument, made for the Queen by John Rose (1580), has on the back of it a large and very elaborate piece of decorative carving depicting a scallop shell. The Orpharion is a wire strung, scalloped-shaped instrument often mentioned as an alternative to the Lute, and the instrument presented to Lord Tollemache is one of only two original surviving Orpharions.

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Orpharion similar to that presented to Catherine Cromwell's husband by the Queen

During 1574 Edward Cromwell was a Fellow-commoner at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he was a pupil of Richard Bancroft. Bancroft was notorious for hunting and harrying puritan preachers, and in 1597 became the Bishop of London and later Archbishop of Canterbury. Cromwell never matriculated from Jesus College, though he was created M.A in Jul 1594 at a special congregation. Amongst those resident with Cromwell at Jesus College were Richard Swale who became the Rector for Elm in Norfolk, and later a Member of Parliament. Swale was said to have been the intimate friend and advisor of the Lord Chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton. Already at Jesus College, having been admitted three years before Cromwell was Henry Haselwood, a note by Arthur Gray, sometime Master, indicates that ĎHasylwoodí appears in the collegeís financial records for 1568-69. He was a late addition to the list of Fellows receiving stipends at Jesus College during the time of Cromwellís admission. The 5th son of Thomas Haselwood, he was a neighbour of Cromwell, coming from Belton Park, a few miles north of Launde Abbey. He had an elder brother Francis who was admitted to Greyís Inn during 1567. Haselwood received his BA during Cromwellís time, becoming a fellow two years later. Also at Jesus College was Charles Tilney, perhaps best known for his involvement in the Babington Plot. Tilney was executed with the conspirators for treason in Sep 1586. Phillip Wharton, later 3rd Baron Wharton also resided at the college during Cromwellís time. In later years Wharton visited Cromwell at Launde Abbey and forfeited the customary horse shoe to the Lord of the Manor of Oakham, Baron Cromwell. This shoe can be seen today in Oakham Castle. Later Wharton married the widow of Sir Francis Willoughby of Wollaton, a distant relation to Cromwell on his Grandmothers side.

Cromwell married in 1581, Elizabeth, daughter of William Upton of Puslinch, Newton-Ferrers in Devon, with whom he had one daughter, Elizabeth. This daughter was first married to Sir John Shelton of Norfolk, and afterwards Thomas Fitzhughes. After ten years of marriage Elizabeth Upton died in London on 5 Jan l593. Her body was interred in the vaults of Launde Abbey ten days later.

Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, Lord High Chamberlain of England and Henry VIIIís chief minister responsible for the dissolution of the monasteries bought Launde for the sum of £1500. He never lived to take up residence at Launde, being executed for treason when he lost the Royal favour. His son, Gregory, grandfather to Lord Edward Cromwell, completed the building of the Elizabethan Manor house on the site of the Augustan Priory, and lived there with his wife, Elizabeth, sister of the short lived Queen Jane Seymour, the mother of Edward VI. There is in the Chapel of Launde a fine Renaissance memorial to Gregory Cromwell.

Shortly after his marriage to Elizabeth Upton, Edward Cromwell was out of England serving as an officer in the English armies allied to the forces of the United Provinces, fighting the Spanish armies of Felipe II. In Dec 1581, The Prince of Orange sent five companies of "English" to guard the town of Meenen, one included the company of Captain Cromwell and Captain Edwards. During this period of Cromwellís service in the Provinces, Walsingham, the Queenís Secretary of State, was informed in Aug 1582 of injuries incurred during fighting at Ghent, "Captain Cromwell hurt at Ghent", and "Captain Edwardsí lieutenant slain". Cromwell had been injured in the leg during an attack by the Prince of Parmaís forces, when the English "little by little were forced to retire under the walls of Ghent, where they set themselves in good order of battle, and then made a noble stout skirmish with the enemy".

In spite of Cromwellís injury, two years later Walsingham was writing to the Prince of Orange,

Requesting him, on the recommendation of the Earl of Leicester, to take the eldest son of Lord (Henry) Cromwell, with a company of 200 able and experienced men, into his commission and pay, and to arrange the matter with Captain Cromwell, the present bearer.

London, last of Feb,1584.

The expeditionary force to the Netherlands began to muster soon after Aug 1585, with the Earl of Leicester as commander-in chief. The vanguard of the force left England at the end of Aug. Edward Cromwell, already in the Low Countries with a command of I50 foot, was joined in Sep by Captain Robert Sydney, Captain Latham, Captain Josias Bodley, Captain Richard Wingfield, who later became Viscount Powerscourt, Lord Sheffield and Sir William Russell, who became Governor of Flushing and later Lord Deputy in Ireland.

During Dec of this year many of Cromwellís company fell ill, some dying and most unable to serve. There was "no fault being in the Captain, of whom he hears a very good report", wrote Leicester to Walsingham. The following year Cromwell saw action at Utrecht and was stationed with his company at Bergon-op-Zoom. Phillip Sydney, also at Bergen op Zoom, used Leicesterís Jesting player William Kempe to courier his sensitive letters to England, he wrote "For Bergen op Zoom I delighted in it, I confess, because it was near the enemy, but especially having a very fair house in it and an excellent air, I destined it for my wife..." The Earl of Leicester did two tours in the Netherlands. As a commander he antagonised the Dutch, and caused problems for the Anglo-Dutch Alliance. Eventually he was recalled from his command, sailing for England in Dec 1587. He died in Sep the following year.

The Earl of Leicester was replaced by Lord Willoughby, under whom Cromwell now served with his "footband" of 150 men. Cromwell's service in the Netherlands did not go unnoticed. He was praised by Sir Phillip Sydney who wrote of him, "having here well deserved and very commendably behaved himself'". It was during the campaigning season of 1586 that Sir Phillip Sydney, godson to Felipe II of Spain, was fatally wounded, his thigh bone smashed by a musket shot from Parmaís Spanish troops during an attack at Zutphen.

Having served in the Provinces for six years, Cromwell returned to England during the campaigning season of 1588. A large number (4000) of the English veterans, including many officers, were recalled from the Provinces to meet the Armada threat, the Dutch having dismissed many of the English troops in their pay. Peace negotiations with Parmaís agents were begun with the Embassy of Ferdinando Stanley, fifth Earl of Derby arriving in Feb. A more effective alliance was established between the English and Dutch, with the authority of the States General firmly established through out the United Provinces. The circumstance of the war were also changing, and the states were now able to take the war in their stride.

In England the response to the Armada was the expedition of Sir John Norreys and Sir Francis Drake to Spain and Portugal in 1589. The fleet was made up of five squadrons and numbered 180 ships, including contributions from the Dutch, the Queen and numerous private vessels. It carried a land force of 17,000 men, and listed amongst the principal officers of the army was Captain Edward Cromwell, appointed "Lieutenant of the Foot". The expedition was joined by the Earl of Essex who stole away from Elizabethís court on horse back, arriving at Plymouth where, on the 18th Apr, he boarded the Swiftsure. Cromwell was amongst those shipped in Apr from London with his company of 150 men. After a week at sea a force of 7000 men landed at La CoruŮa, captured the lower town, putting 500 Spaniards to the sword, and then wandered at will inland, burning, ravaging and seizing what ever supplies came to hand. With the entire lower town put to the torch the army re-embarked and the fleet weighed anchor on the 8th May. Sailing south the fleet arrived on 16th May at Peniche in Portugal, fifty miles north of Lisbon. Here the bulk of the army was landed and spent the next five days marching overland to Lisbon. On reaching the suburbs the English forces realised nothing was to be gained with an assault on the city, as the expected "popular uprising" for Dom Antonio, the pretender to the Portuguese throne, never materialised. The land forces had been greatly reduced in strength by sickness that had plagued the forces from the outset, and when many of the men became sick and died from drinking contaminated water morale was very low. On the march to Lisbon alone 2000 had died. Grown weary of Portugal and the empty promises of the pretender the remains of the fleet sailed for home. On the return journey Drake and Norreys anchored above Vigo, and with the 2000 or so fit men that remained of the army they attacked the town. When the army entered Vigo they found the town almost completely deserted. After laying waste to the surrounding country side and setting fire to the town they departed for England.

Two years later, 1591, Edward Cromwell acted as a Captain of 150 foot, departing from Greenwich on the 28th Jun in the English Army headed by Essex to aid Henri IV in Normandy, seeing action at the Siege of Rouen. Cromwellís company was greatly reduced from casualties incurred during the fighting and instructions were issued by the privy council to have more men dispatched to join it. During this campaign Cromwell was promoted to Colonel. His company was amongst the forces that besieged the town of Gournay in Sep, "where they lay ten days", before it fell, in which time "there came letters out of England to my Lord Essex, to command him to repair for England" wrote Robert Carey in his memoirs, adding, "Here Colonel Cromwell left the camp, and went for England, having such urgent business that he could stay no longer". Serving as master of the ordnance on this campaign was John Wingfield, and as a lieutenant and then Captain with the English troops under Sir Roger Williams was Richard Moryson. Through out their military careers Morysonís and Cromwellís paths frequently overlapped.

The following year on Oct 10th Cromwellís mother died at Northelmham and was buried on the 23 Oct at Launde. A month later the Northelmham parish register recorded, "The right honourable Henry Lo: Cromwell departed this lyfe upon Munday the 20th daye of November 1592: about 4 of the clock in the morning and was buried at his house in Leicestershyer the 4th of december the next followinge". Henry, Lord Cromwell "bequeathed his body to be buried in the chapel of Launde by the tomb of his father where also his wife lay interred". Edward now succeeded his father to the peerage. On Feb l9th, 1593 he was summoned to parliament, and admitted to the Lords on the 27th of that month.

This same year, 1593, his first wife Elizabeth having died, Cromwell married Frances, daughter of William Rugge of Felmingham, Norfolk, by Thomasyne, daughter of Sir Robert Townshend, Justice of Chester. They had a son, Thomas and two daughters, Anne and Frances. Frances married Sir John Wingfield of Tickencote, Co. Rutland and Anne married Edward Wingfield of Poore's Court, (Powerscourt) in Ireland.

Lord Edward Cromwell used both Launde and Northelmham for his residences. His wife, Frances Rugge, came from Felmingham, a neighbouring manor just twenty miles away. Northelmham was a manor in Norfolk that had been granted by Henry VIII to Edwardís great grandfather, Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex.

The Cromwell property at Northelmham had been the principle residence of Cromwellís father Lord Henry Cromwell. It was here that Edwardís uncle, Thomas Cromwell, had been his fatherís steward, and following Lord Henry Cromwellís death remained steward for Edward. Thomas Cromwell pursued a successful parliamentary career. He became Member of Parliament for Fowey, Bodmin and Grampound, possibly, through the offices of Lord Burghley, by arrangement with the Earl of Bedford for the seats at Fowey and Bodmin. The Privy Council appointed him several times to intervene in Norfolk affairs and disputes. Thomas Cromwell retired to lands he held near Kings Lynn. He wrote he had neglected his own estate for "following the business of my brother and nephew".

One of the attractions of the Northelmham residence was Edward Cromwellís father in law, William Rugge, who inherited from the Bishop of Norwich large areas of land around Northelmham, including a residence built out of the ruined Cathedral, an enclosed deer park and some ancient woodlands. Whilst living here Cromwellís son Thomas was born, 11 Jun 1594 and a year later his daughter Frances followed by Anne on the 15 Mar 1597. Established at Northelmham as the new Lord, the 3rd Baron Cromwell and "a private Justice of the peace", whose duties gave him an "unpleasing taste", much time was spent attending to the duties that came with being the new Lord Cromwell, addressing letters from the privy councillors reminding "Lord Cromwell and the rest of the Justices of the peace that ship money was still unpaid", there were also musters to be organised and preparations against possible invasion.

During Jul 1594, Edward Cromwell was created an MA at a "special congregation" held at Jesus College, Cambridge. It was reported of Cromwell at the "special congregation", "He states that he was brought up to the wars begun and confirmed by a natural inclination thereto". Cromwell also assisted former military colleagues, as shown by his services to Lord Willoughby, his former Commander in the Provinces.

1594 Feb 4. Northelmham:

Your Lordship uses me, in your letters, with more kindness than so small a matter required, but I am glad it was my hap to make requital even of part of the least of all your many kind good turns. I have dealt as effectually as I could concerning Mr. Baker's cause, as I think he himself will tell you.

Fulfilling his duties as the new Lord Cromwell residing at Northelmham, Norfolk, Edward Cromwell wrote to Sir Robert Cecil in Jul 1596, "there liveth not within the county any other of my rank" when offering himself as a suitable candidate for "the Lieutenancy of Norfolk where I live being not yet disposed of'". The position was not granted to Cromwell, and remained undisposed.

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Oakham Castle

In 1596 Cromwell was granted a license to sell the Castle and manor of Oakham, Rutland to Sir John Harrington of Exton. The manor and castle passed to Sir Johnís daughter, Lucy, who became the wife of Edward Russell, Earl of Bedford, nephew of Sir William Russell, lord deputy of Ireland. Cromwell served alongside Sir William Russell in the Netherlands and Ireland. The Earl of Bedford visited Cromwell at Launde, there is a record of the Earl forfeiting the traditional horse shoe to the Lord of the Manor, Edward Cromwell, at Oakham Castle. The Earlís wife, Lucy Harrington, Countess of Bedford, was a patron of letters and a fashionable dedicatee of the time. Ben Jonson, John Donne and Daniel all paid homage to her in one way or another, as did John Dowland who made her the Dedicatee of his Second Book of Songs. Her fatherís cousin, also a Sir John Harrington, was in Ireland the same time as Cromwell in 1596 and accompanied him on the Essex expedition to Ireland in 1599. Harrington wrote a lively and informative account of the Earlís progress in Ireland, observing of Essex shortly before the Earlís downfall, "he shifteth from sorrow and repentance to rage and rebellion so suddenly, as well as proveth him devoid of good reason as of like mind". He received a knighthood from Essex whilst in Ireland, as did Edward Cromwell. Sir John Harrington was a godson of Queen Elizabeth and was deputed to appease the Queen's anger against the Earl of Essex. He wrote a translation of "Orlando furioso" in 1591 with a dedication to the Queen.

Early in the year, 1596, it was noted by the privy council, "Ship money reluctantly paid" by Lord Cromwell and the Justices of the peace in Norfolk. This summer saw the "Cadiz Expedition" set sail under the command of Essex, Admiral Howard, Lord Thomas Howard and Raleigh. Aboard ship were many of Cromwellís military colleagues, including his future son in law John Shelton, and although Cromwellís name does not appear amongst the principal officers of the army that took part in the expedition, he may well have been aboard serving as a volunteer, returning to England with "Sir Anthony Ashley and others (who) had been dispatched home previously" to the arrival of the main fleet. He was certainly in London at the end of Jul where an incident involving himself and a Captain Latham was reported to the Privy Council. Latham was an officer that had served alongside Cromwell in the Netherlands and in 1591 was with the English army under Sir John Norreys in Brittany.

Memorial of wrongs done to the Lord Cromwell

1596, Jul 30: Going from Fish Street to take a boat at the Old Swan, and seeing a company assembled about some brawl wherein Captain Latham was, who was known to him, came amongst them to understand and pacify the matter.

Hereupon, by command of Alderman Gurney, violent hands were laid upon him and he was carried into the house of A. B. There being haled and pulled by many on every side to take away his rapier (which he not so much as once offered to draw), he by chance with his hand struck the said A. B., the good man of the house, upon the face, whom he knew not but being one of those that were then so busy about him. The said Alderman Gurney there upon sent for the appointed marshals of London and their guard, to whose custody he offered to commit Lord Cromwell, protesting that if he would not go quietly, he should forcibly be carried away. He, thinking himself unworthily dealt withal, refused to yield therein, whereupon he was there holden prisoner by Alderman Gurney, with a guard upon him, and a great multitude of people gathered together, while the sheriff was sent for. On the sheriffís coming, Lord Cromwell went with him to the Lord Mayor's house, where he tarried two or three hours until the coming of the Lord Mayor and some of his brethren, and his recognisance in 500 marks was taken to appear before the Lords of the Privy Council on Sunday next in the morning. Many unworthy speeches and deeds were done to him by Simpson, one of the marshals (late a glasseeller), under colour of his authority.

It was during this summer, with Essex at sea off the coast of Spain, Lord Burghley managed atlast to have his son Sir Robert Cecil sworn Principal Secretary to her Majesty. Though apparently retired from the vigorous demands of high office Lord Burghley did not take a back seat in the affairs of state. He was frequently reminding his son of matters to be attended to, including the preparation of a mission to France to carry the Order of the Garter to the French King. This mission appointed Lord Edward Cromwell to accompany the Earl of Shrewsbury into France. Arrangements were made for Cromwell to go home to Northelmham, Norfolk and then to Dover, provided with "10 or 12 able and sufficient post horses for himself and his servants". Cromwell attended the "solemn oath of confederation" between England and France in Oct, 1596, held in the Church of St.Owen in Rouen. Lord Cromwell was "stood" beside Lord Rich, and behind them, "all other knights and Gentleman according to their quality". Following the ceremony, the King of France and the English Ambassador, "attended upon by the nobility, who two by two preceded before them", departed the Church and later supped "in the house of the Duke of Montpensier".

In a letter of 1598 to Sir Robert Cecil seeking, "employment under the Earl of Essex in Ireland", Cromwell indicated he had previously fought in the Irish wars, "having spent a good portion of my time in the wars, as well of that country(Ireland)". With the appointment of Sir William Russell as the Lord Deputy in Ireland, many veterans from the Netherlands were enrolled in Elizabethís Irish Army, amongst them Josias Bodley and Cromwell. English intelligence had been alerted to the threat of a "Second Armada", expected to sail from Spain in Oct 1596 and meet up with Tyroneís forces from the North. In response to this threat reinforcements were being hurriedly despatched for Ireland. Cromwell was in Ireland, granted a commission that stationed him during the winter of 1596/7 at Offaly. Also in Ireland for a few months at this time was Sir John Harington, appointed one of the "undertakers for the repeopling of the province of Munster", and Captain Josias Bodley who "had the charge of a 100 men in the North part of Ireland". Almost as soon as it put to sea the "Second Armada" ran into severe storms, was dispersed, and suffered heavy losses. Failing to reach Ireland it returned, battered by winter storms, to Spain. With the Spanish threat having passed Sir William Russell was replaced by Thomas, fifth Lord Borough, a former officer in the Netherlands and Governor of the Brill. Lord Borough was the most successful and resourceful of all Elizabethís Irish Viceroys, driving OíDonnell out of Connaught and flinging OíNeil back into the depths of Ulster. The suspicion has long survived that Borough was poisoned by his own country men, having fallen fatally ill with the "Irish ague". Six months after receiving the sword of office he was dead, dying in Newry that Oct. Lord Borough was replaced by Sir Thomas Norreys who was appointed sole Lord Justice. Cromwell returned from Ireland shortly after Lord Boroughís appointment, arriving in time to take part in the Essex expedition, "the Islands Voyage".

Cromwell was aboard ship in early Jul, 1597, sailing for the Azores. The "Islands Voyage" was smaller than the "Cadiz expedition" of the previous year. Made up of four squadrons led by, Essex, Howard, a Dutch Admiral and Raleigh. The fleet consisted of seventeen Queenís warships, forty-three smaller men of war, ten Dutch vessels, and fifty or so smaller ships, with 6000 troops. Amongst Cromwellís colleagues on this expedition were Lord Rich, Richard Moryson, who acted as Lieutenant-colonel under Lord Mountjoy, and many others who had served with the Cadiz expedition, including the poet, John Donne. Driven back by storms, the ships were refitted, but infection struck the army. When the fleet sailed a second time the fighting force was reduced to only 1000 men. The expedition achieved very little, it was dispersed by storms, squadrons became separated, and when it did manage to reunite, having wasted considerable time hovering off the coast of Spain, it spent the rest of the time cruising off the Azores in the hope of intercepting the Spanish silver convoy. In Oct, having achieved very little, Raleigh had attacked and captured the Island of Fayal, Essex gave the order to sail for home.

Returning to London after the "Islands Voyage", Cromwell spent most of this year, 1598, at his residence in Hackney attending court. During Aug he "sued hard" for the "lucrative" Governorship of the Brill in the Netherlands. The post had become vacant when the Countess of Ormondís brother, Lord Sheffield, who had been granted the Governorship in Jan resigned from office at the end of Jul 1598. Cromwellís petition proved unsuccessful, his application coinciding with plans to have the garrison transferred. Staying with him at his residence in Hackney was his son in law, Sir John Shelton, who had married Elizabeth, Cromwellís daughter from his marriage to Elizabeth Upton. Sir John Shelton had been in the Netherlands with one of 31 newly formed companies in 1587, had gone to France with Cromwell in 1591 and received a knighthood from Essex during the Cadiz Expedition. Whilst at Hackney Cromwell wrote to Sir Robert Cecil

Edward, Lord Cromwell wrote to Sir Robert Cecil, principal secretary to Elizabeth I, requesting employment under Essex, "in order to readvance the Estate of my declining house". It was this employment that brought him to Ireland in May and Jun 1599 as "Colonel of Foot" at "Dundalk with four companies", and eventually led to his arrival in 1605 with his wife, family and goods to live as "Governor and Commander of all the country of Lecale".

Right honorable

The great ffavors which I have allreadie received from your honorable howse doe at this tyme incorage me to intreat the Continewance of the same from your self, being in a matter wherin I maye doe some service acceptable to her majestie and allso help to readvance the estate of my nowe declyning howse. So yt is Sir that I doe heer my lord of Essex is shortlie to be imploied into Ireland and my self am very desiorus to doe her majestie service in those or any other marshall affaires. Wherfore having spent a good porcion of my tyme in the warrs, aswell of that Contrey as of other places wherin her highnesse forces have bin imployed, and being in mynd and estate of bodie as fyt nowe as ever, I make no dought but yf by your honorable meanes I may receyve somuche grace from her Majestie as to have some place beseeming my quallitie, but that my indevors shall every waye apeere worthie of soe high a favor. Heerin being loathe to be to trooblesome, I doe humblie and ernestlie intreat your honorable fortherance, assuring you that as I ever have bin bownden, soe I ever will apear, in all thankfullnes a vowed Orator for the long Continewance of your high and hapie ffortunes. I humblie take my leve Hakney this iijd of Nov 1598.

your honors most assured

Ed. Crumuell

Essex was appointed the Lord Lieutenent for Ireland, the first to hold that office since the Earl of Sussex in 1560. He had the command of a formidable army of 16,000 foot and 1300 horse. To accompany his journey into Ireland, "The Earls of Derby, Rutland and Southampton go with him, also Lords Windsor, Grey, Audley, and Cromwell, who is to be Lord Marshal, and numberless knights".

Cromwell departed from Launde on 25th Mar 1599 by "especial command" to join the Essex expedition into Ireland expecting the appointment of Lord Marshal. Sir Christopher Blount, Essexís step father, was appointed Lord Marshal and Cromwell given the command Colonel of Foot, with four companies stationed at Dundalk. Cromwellís son in law, Sir John Shelton, had the command of 350 foot at nearby Ardee, and Captain Josias Bodley held the command of 100 foot at Newry, a few miles north from Dundalk. Sir John Harington, who wrote an account of Essexís "progress" through Ireland, stayed briefly at Dundalk where he, "went to see the Newry, and from thence to Darlingford (Carlingford) by the narrow water".

Josias Bodleyís career as a soldier was very similar to that of Cromwellís. His brother, Thomas, was the founder of the Bodleian Library. Oxford wrote in a letter, 24th Nov 1597, to Robert Cecil about Capt. Josias Bodley, "he hath followed the wars, in Ireland, and before in the Provinces United, as likewise of late in services by the sea". He was also well travelled, having been to Poland and Italy. In Florence he met John Dowland, Lutenist and composer of the Elizabethan Lute song. Bodley was "Trench-Master" at Kinsale. In Mar, 1604 he was knighted by Mountjoy and appointed director-general of fortifications in Ireland for life. He died in Ireland in 1618.

Cromwellís command formed the largest portion of the English forces assigned to covering the North, an area that included Newry, Carlingford, Downpatrick and Strangford. Forty years after this campaign Cromwellís command of his company is recalled by Father Edmund MacCana, who described Cromwell as, "this son of Earth and foul spot on the human race". MacCana writes of a sortie by Cromwell into the North, " ..that he (Cromwell) set fire to the noble church and monastery of St Patrick.., and exposed to the fury of the flames the relics of Saint Patrick, Saint Columba and Saint Brigid", MacCana continues, "I have been told by my Grandfather that he was an eye witness of that sacrilegious incendiarism;Öfor so notorious was the sacrilege of that impious man, that numbers of old men reckoned their age from it".

In a report to the Privy Council about a rebel attack Essex wrote, "In the North they offered some bravado to the town of Dundalk, but my Lord Cromwell stood upon his strength and ground of advantage without putting anything to hazard, as indeed he had reason, so as not a man of ours was lost, and the rebels lost some in braving upon disadvantage". This action had been reported back in London, "I hear uncertain reports from Ireland that Lord Cromwell has overthrown 6000 of Tyrone's company".

On l2th Jul 1599 Edward Cromwell was knighted in Dublin by the Earl of Essex. He returned to England on the l4th Aug "as a willing messenger" replacing Lord Thomas Egerton as courier, carrying letters from Essex, signed and endorsed "Lord Cromwell", to the Privy Council. Cromwell arrived at Nonsuch, Elizabethís court, "to make known the miserable state of that country". On the 25 Aug 1599 Sir Robert Sydney was informed by his secretary, Rowland Whyte from Nonsuch, "Lord Cromwell is here, and a suitor for the Presidentship of Munster". Lord Cromwell "made application for the post of Lord President of Munster, which had become vacant by the death of Sir Thomas Norreys".

Cromwellís early return from Ireland was, according to his own words, due to "his colonelship there was taken from him, the command of the town (Dundalk) where he lay given to another, his company cashiered, and his goods stayed or rifled". The command Lord Marshal of the army that Cromwell expected was granted to Sir Christopher Blount. Following his departure for England the command of Dundalk was given to Sir Richard Moryson, who had been knighted by Essex in Dublin a few weeks after Cromwell received his knighthood. There was also to be had the opportunity of presenting himself at court as a suitable candidate for the Lord Presidentship of Munster, the previous Lord President, Sir Thomas Norreys, fatally wounded by a pike-thrust below the ear, having died at the beginning of Aug.

Concluding his business with the Privy Council, Cromwell left Nonsuch for Launde, arriving there by the 30th Aug. At Launde he had pressing business regarding a petition "for a gift of woods expected and yet remaining ungiven at Launde".

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Launde Abbey

Essex, alarmed by reported intrigues against him at court, made a hurried truce with Tyrone, disobeyed Elizabethís orders forbidding him to abandon his command in Ireland, and speedily returned to London in Sep, 1599. On his arrival, after a brief audience with the Queen, he was committed to the custody of Sir Thomas Egerton, and charged with "great and high contempts and points of misgovernance" in Ireland.

For the remainder of 1599 and most of 1600 Cromwell remained at Launde seeking "employment by either land or sea" in her Majesty's service. During this time at Launde events in Ireland had taken a dramatic turn with the army now under the command of Mountjoy. Campaigning through the summer and winter, spending five days each week in the saddle, Mountjoy harassed the Irish, fighting a war of attrition, destroying their cattle and crops, burning their homes and laying waste large areas of the country. After a year most of the island had been subdued, the only rebel strong hold remained in the North.

Cromwell was in London when a group of Essexís followers gathered at the Globe theatre for a performance on the 7 Feb 1601 by the Lord Chamberlain's Men of "Richard II", including the prohibited deposition scene, intended to present Essex as Bolingbroke, saving his country from misrule. A plan had been hatched by Essex and his followers to seize the court and rid it of his enemies. On the 8 Feb the attempted coup of Essex and his followers ended when Essex House was besieged and there was no hope of resistance. The Earl and his followers surrendered at nine o'clock that night.

Cromwell did not take part in the rebellion, though he did liase between the Sheriff of London, Sir Thomas Smythe, the Lord Mayor, Sir William Rider, and Essex, informing Sheriff Smythe that he had come from the Lord Mayorís on Essexís behalf, and "that Essex the Earl had like to have been slain that night, and was coming to his house for safety". Essex then arrived on the scene with some followers and entered Sheriff Smytheís house, where he remained for three hours having given instructions for the Lord Mayor to be sent for.

Taken into custody Cromwell was held at the house of Sir John Fortescue, "an unfit place for keeping prisoners". Here he insisted on his innocence, he "protesteth ignorance of the attempt, and that he casually fell into the Earl of Essex's company, nor was he any way partaker of any plot; which thing he protesteth may be proved by his dealing with the Lord Mayorís". Sir Charles Danvers, a key figure amongst the Essex intimates during the planning and execution of the rebellion, did not include Cromwell amongst "the names of such that manifested themselves in the action" that he gave to the Privy Council. He supplied a complete list of the names of all those involved directly and indirectly in the rebellion to the Privy Councillors. Sir Charles Danvers was held in the Tower with Cromwell, charged and executed along with Essex, Sir Christopher Blount and three others for their role in the rebellion.

Confined to the Tower on the 9th Feb 1601, Cromwell found himself in the company of the Earls of Essex, Rutland and Southampton. Cromwellís wife "made humble suit to the council on behalf of her Lord that is a prisoner in the Tower, in regard that he is corpulent and sickly he may take the air". Her wish was granted permitting her husband, "from time to time to take the air, but only in the company of the Lieutenant and his deputy". On 5 Mar 1601 Cromwell was brought for trial with Lord Sandys in Westminster Hall, fined £3000, and placed under house arrest. The Earl of Rutland was fined £30,000 and the Earl of Bedford £10,000.

A letter to the Lieutenant of the Tower:

wee do hereby lett you knowe that her Majesty is contented and pleased that the Earle of Rutland, the Lord Sandes, the Lord Cromwell and Sir William Parker, knight, shalbe enlarged of their imprisonment, saving only that they shalbe confined to the houses of such severall persons whose names are hereunder wrytten, for the doing whereof this shalbe your warrant, provided allwayes they first take order to satisfie you for their diett and other lyke charges. So,&c.

Lord Cromwell To: John East's, a printer in Aldersgate Streete.

This family of printers "had the name for the true imprinting of musicke", and printed Dowlandís Second Booke of Songs, 1600.

On 9th Jul 1601 Lord Cromwell was allowed a temporary reprieve from his confinement, following a plea to the Queen to, "grant me liberty to go to Leicestershire, and to take order for my business there, and then to go into Norfolk to my wife's father with her for a month, making my return to my confined place at Michaelmas next".

Cromwellís father in law, William Rugge, held extensive properties in Norfolk, and these increased with the inheritance from his Uncle, after whom he was named, William Rugge, Bishop of Norwich. The Rugges had become a prominent and well established Norfolk family during the time of Cromwellís grandfather, Lord Gregory Cromwell, in whose life time Williamís father, Robert Rugge, was appointed mayor of Norwich. The family seat, Rugges Hall, was close to Northelmham, Cromwellís residence in Norfolk that he had been forced to "assure to the Lord TreasurerÖ. for the assurance of his fine". Having been granted a temporary reprieve from his confinement Cromwell travelled to Launde, and then into Norfolk where he stayed at Rugges Hall for a month with his wife.

During Cromwellís stay at Rugges Hall the Irish wars were to come to a head when a Spanish force of 4500 men landed at the town of Kinsale in Sep 1601. Mountjoy promptly marched upon the town of Kinsale and by Oct had besieged the Spaniards within its walls. Early in Dec a large Irish force under Tyrone with OíDonnell descended upon the town and encircled the English forces. On the morning of Christmas eve 1601, after some skirmishing, the Irish forces were exposed to a charge from the English Horse on open ground, the Irish broke up in disorder and fled the field in panic. Captain Mynshall was given special mention for his bravery during the charge of the Presidents horse. With the Irish having fled the Spanish surrendered.

Returning from Rugges Hall to his place of confinement, Cromwell was granted further leave by the Privy Council on Dec 6th 1601 to "repaire unto your owne house and there abide....the space of one monnethe".

Granted a special pardon Cromwell was eventually released from his house arrest. Many nobles and officers in the Irish army were involved with the Essex coup, including Mountjoy, the new Irish commander and Lord Deputy of Ireland, though in Mountjoy's case this was over looked due to his successes against Tyrone in Ireland. So widespread was the involvement of the army many of the rebels were treated with remarkable lenity, being either condemned to death and then reprieved, or sentenced only to a fine and imprisonment.

Though not debarred from taking his seat in Parliament, Cromwell was advised on the 23 Sep 1601 by the privy council that it "is thought by her Majesty more convenient that you forbeare your comminge to the Parliament". Cromwell frequently petitioned Sir Robert Cecil in an attempt to get himself reconciled with the sovereign.

Edward, Lord Cromwell to Sir Robert Cecil:

8 Mar 1602. I beseech you to further my better reconcilement to the favour of my most dread sovereign, whom I grieve so unadvisedly to have offended. Ed.Crumwell.

From the time of Cromwellís grandfather, Gregory Cromwell, there had been dealings between the Cecil and Cromwell families. William Cecil, Lord Burghley, had copied out a family tree of the Cromwellís lineage amongst his many jottings, and Thomas Cromwell, Edwardís uncle, mentions Lord Burghley in his will. Lord Burghley may have been instrumental in the arrangements with the Earl of Bedford for Thomas Cromwell to have the seats of Fowey and Bodmin. Also in a letter to Sir Robert Cecil mentioning Robertís father, Lord Burghley, Edward Cromwell wrote "by my late father I was wholly bequeathed unto his Lordshipís (Burghleyís) disposing", expressing his "thankfulness for former good favours". Cromwell would certainly have needed to exploit his familyís connections with the Cecils, drawing upon the "good opinion" that the late Lord Burghley had of him, in order to enlist Robert Cecilís help in regaining the Royal favour. To encourage Robert Cecil he gave him the gift of two horses.

Lord Cromwell to Sir Robert Cecil:

1602. I hope your honour will accept of these two horses, which I wish may do you service, being the first colts of my race.

Sir Robert Cecil to Lord Cromwell:

28 May 1602. will be pleased to accept one of the two horses Mr Cromwell has offered him, but it would be unreasonable to accept them both unless he saw some imminent opportunity to requite him.

Perhaps in accepting only one of Cromwellís horses Cecil was recalling a letter the privy council sent to the Lord Compton:

Acts of the Privy Council

requiring his Lordship (Lord Compton) to redeliver a horse belonginge to the Lord Cromwell that in the late rebellion of the Erle of Essex came to his Lordships hands, consideringe that her Majestie had pardoned his offence and that all soche goods and other thinges as did belonge unto him should be restored againe to his Lordship.

On the accession of James I in Mar 1603, Lord Edward Cromwell "joined in the proclamation of King James and was afterwards sworn of the Privy Council (Ireland)". His brother, Gregory, received a knighthood from James in Apr. In order to meet mounting "debts, payments of great legacies, intolerable charges in law, employment in costly services, imprisonment in the Tower, and other causesÖ" this was the year Cromwell was forced to part with the house of his father and Grand father, Launde Abbey. On Dec 9th, the "Grant to Wm.Smith, and his heirs, of the reversion of Launde Priory, co. Leicester, and others, with remainder to lord Cromwell" was made. James I wrote to Robert Cecil, "I was daily troubled with the poor Lord Cromwell's begging leave to sell the last pieces of his land, who had valiantly served the State in the wars".

Edward, Lord Cromwell to Sir Robert Cecil

14 Apr 1603: His folly enforced him to assure to the Lord Treasurer, Sir John Fortescue, Mr. Attorney and Mr. Solicitor all the land he has entailed from the Crown, for the assurance of his fine. That estate still remains in them, and though it was intended that, her Majesty satisfied, he should use the rest, yet by reason of their interest therein, and this late sorrowful time, which has shut up all rich men's purses, he cannot make such sale thereof as he would. Asks whether the Lord Treasurer may not, upon the assurance they have of that land, being worth £14,OOO., disburse a reasonable sum for his instant need. Ed.Crumwell.

The following year, Nov 1604, the manor and rectory of Loddington, and other lands were seized by the King's Attorney and Solicitor-General to be sold for payment of his debts. The "new men" at the Jacobean court were not very sympathetic to Edward Cromwell, and the division of his properties continued with the "Grant to Sir Edward Coke and John Dodderidge, of the reversion of lands in Co. Leicester, part of the possessions of Lord Cromwell". The manor of Northelmham had also become the possession of Sir Edward Coke. Cromwell wrote to Cecil that his creditors had even "seized his coach and horses". Indeed with these "new men" at court, financial hardship was experienced by many of Cromwell's colleagues. Sir John Harington was imprisoned for debt in 1603 and forced to sell some of his lands the following year.

During the next year Cromwell held a position amongst the Justices of Leicestershire. He presided over the questioning of William Andrew, servant to Sir Everard Digby, regarding the conspiracy against James I that became known as the "Gun Powder plot". Cromwell was also employed in various "costly services", some which he turned down,

Lord Cromwell to Sir Robert Cecil

I received instructions from your Lordship and others of the Council to prepare to accompany the Earl of Hertford to the Archduke and very willingly obeyed. But wanting present money to make defrayment of the charge for such a journey I gave over to those who had such dealings for me to make speedy provision thereof out of my means : myself in the meantime riding into the country to set some stay to my weak household affairs. In which journey God visiting me with sickness and money at my return not being provided according to my expectation, that unlooked for cross, by bringing with it grief of mind, made my bodily disease far more vehement. Yet having never been (nor now willing to be) backwards in any service to which my poor ability could extend, I strived as much as I could with my sickness ; and to the uttermost possibility likewise endeavoured my desired furnishment. But my sickness still continuing and no means possibly to be made to bear the charge I am constrained to beseech you to be relieved from hat journeyÖ. This is no feigned excuse, as the view of my body and my estate, already impoverished and entangled with present endless hydra-like increasing chargeable suits in law, can testify. I hope you will favour my sickness and pity my want and find honourable means to succour me.- 21 Mar 1605

Listed amongst those that made up the Earl of Hertfordís embassy to the Archduke was Sir Gregory Cromwell, Edward Cromwellís brother. On their arrival at Bruxlles Hertfordís embassy was received by Archduke Albert of Austria. The Earl of Hertford informed Sir Robert Cecil from Bruxelles on the 3rd May, how "the whole court of the Nobility of all Nations" had come out to meet them and how their company had been "entertained with delightfull and costly shows".

On the 7th Feb this year, 1605, a "Grant to Lord Cromwell of the revision of lands in Kent" had been given by the privy council. It was with this settlement and what ever properties he had remaining that Cromwell decided to leave with his, "wife, family and goods" for Ireland.

Lord Cromwell to Sir Robert Cecil

(1605).-By debts, payment of great legacies, intolerable charges in law, employment in costly services, imprisonment in the Tower, and other causes, he was so utterly overthrown that he could only unwind himself by selling all his Land. Dealing therein with my Lord of Devon,(Mountjoy was created the Earl of Devonshire) he also bought some land of his lordship's in Ireland (Lecale), to which he cannot furnish himself but by parting with his last remainder to his lordship(Mountjoy), who, for some pretended title the College of All Souls in Oxford make to it, has desired a day of hearing. He asserts his title thereto, and begs Salisbury to stand his friend in the matter, so that he may be the sooner dispatched for Ireland.

A multifarious and long-winded suit, between Cromwell and All Souls College, Oxford, to which that college was prone, over the possession of "900 acres of land, parcel of the manor of Whadborowe, co. Leicester", was judged now in his favour. First heard in the courts during his fatherís time, 12 Jun 1586, the expense to both parties was astronomical, and the time involved was extra-ordinary even by Elizabethan standards. The College had even mischievously tried to get the case judged in their favour when learning of Cromwellís confinement in the tower. They wrote in Feb, 1601, to the Privy Council, "with Lord Cromwell being now committed to the Tower for high Treason, the College prays that no grant be made of the said lands, as parcel of Lord Cromwellís lands". The costs to the college exceeded £2000 and they were ordered to pay Cromwell a similar amount. Cromwell sold the manor Whadborowe to Lord Mountjoy, the Earl of Devonshire.

The country of Lecale had formerly been in the possession of Lord Mountjoy, Earl of Devonshire, from whom Cromwell had recently purchased the lands. Mountjoy had marched into Lecale during 1601 with Cromwellís replacement from Dundalk, Sir Richard Moryson. They headed a force of 500 men, including some drawn from the command of Captain Josias Bodley at Newry. After relieving "Jordans Castle" in Ardglass, and getting the submission of the local Irish, MacArtan and Magennis, Mountjoy appointed Sir Richard Moryson to be the Governor of Lecale.

Captain Josias Bodley wrote a "very pleasant account of a very pleasant visit" to Lecale after Christmas 1602. He was visiting with companions, Sir Richard Moryson, Governor of Lecale, spending there seven days. On arrival they were led up "wide stairs into a large hall, where the fire was burning the height of our chins", they drank "Spanish wine with burnt sugar and nutmeg, claret, smoked Indian tobacco", ate well, describing one meal of "stuffed Geese,(such as Lord Bishop of Meath is wont to eat at Ardbraccan) pies of venison, various kinds of game, pasties with innumerable plums, tarts of different shapes and sizes, the best Muscadet wine, mustards and what the French call, Quelquechoses and cheeses, in a word everything was supplied to us most luxuriously and plenteously". The "bedrooms had a large fire, plenty of Tobacco, with fresh pipes set out", and they "conversed about things political, economical, philosophical and much else", recalling how "different things were from when we were at Kinsale the Christmas before". Josias Bodley and his companions departed a week after their arrival "mournful and gloomy", Bodley returning to his posting at Armagh.

With a "Warrant for Lord Cromwell's commission to be governor and commander as well of all the country of Lecale", granted on 26 Sep 1605, Lord Cromwell arrived in Ireland as the new Governor of Lecale. His family would have initially taken up residence in that vacated by Sir Richard Moryson. Interestingly Sir Richard Morysonís wife, Elizabeth, was a daughter of Sir Henry Harington, the brother of Sir John Harington of Exton to whom Cromwell had earlier sold the manor of Oakham.

Lord Cromwell was soon to build an "imposing house in Downpatrick", more in keeping with his status (this great house was burnt down in 1641). As Governor he made an agreement on 1st Oct with Oge McCartan who, "did sell to the very good Lord, Sir Edward Cromwell, Knight, the third part of all that is his countrie called Killinarte, or in Watertirrye or else where in Co. Doune". This included "the Castle of Dondrome"; the castle at this time had an outer court surrounded with a ruined wall, within which were eleven "Irish houses".

Lord Cromwell to Sir Robert Cecil

1606, Apr 4: Having laboured to transport myself, my wife, family and goods into Ireland, where I have bought lands of Lord Devonshire's, returning, I am not only fallen sick, but found my Lord (Mountjoy) very sick, whom God has now taken, to my double grief for the loss of so good a friend. His sudden death prevented the perfecting of the writings for my assurance. Having ousted myself here of all, and no certainty there, I know not how to turn but to your favour ; beseeching that, as I am to live in an uncivil country, that company of foot I have by my Lord's appointment may not be cast, and that you will remember me for those 60 horse of his there, which by his death rest to be disposed. There was some promise hereof between us.

Lord Cromwell, having travelled from Ireland with six of his servants, was in London to try and get the promised 60 horse from Mountjoy. He failed to get the 60 horse, but did get his command confirmed on the 1st Apr as that "of 10 horsemen and 30 footmen". He further arranged on the l6th Apr for his "pay to be continued in his absence from Parliament". With these and other matters sorted out he set off on his return to Lecale.

Lord Cromwell to the Earl of Salisbury

1606, Jun l.-Being here at Lyrpoole, at the water side ready for my passage, I am informed of many very distasteful news, that the Bishop of Down makes challenge to part of the principal house ; and that there are many leases made for life of the chiefest parts of the land, which are covenanted by my Lord of Devonshire to be made free to me without exception ; besides many other impediments, whereof I am like to feel the future danger ; as also how to keep that rebellious nation in quiet without some means of authority, the only bridle to that uncivil people amongst whom I am to reside, being far from my Lord Deputy and all civil administration. I acquaint the Countess [of Devonshire] and his lordship's executors more particularly of what I have already heard of the former ; and for the other I wholly rely upon you and their wisdoms who have made an establishment there. I beseech your honourable word to the Countess on my behalf.-Leverpoole, 1 Jun 1606

Representatives of the Bishop of Down protested that the Abbey Church (Down Cathedral) and lands belonged to the Bishop, "because this abbey was an abbey of old, in the time of the annexation of the abbey lands to the crowne, (a policy instigated by Cromwellís great grandfather, Thomas Cromwell) it was also reputed to be annexed to the crowne, and so by that means was lately passed to my Lord of Devonshire, who purchased the same being confirmed and never parted it by way of Excambium to my Lord Cromwell - All this estate is void, because the said abbey could never be annexed to the crowne, being one part of the bishoprick and united by law".

On the 9th Jul 1606 Lord Cromwell wrote from Downpatrick to the Earl of Salisbury ensuring the title to his properties in Lecale was secure following Mountjoy's untimely death, dealing now with the former Lady Rich, Mountjoy's widow, the Countess of Devonshire. He also used it as an opportunity to request more men for his command.

Lord Cromwell to the Earl of Salisbury.

His Lordship was pleased amongst many other honourable favours to confirm his estate by his furtherance to the Countess (the former Lady Rich) , Ö..This nation hath in the greater part, especially here in the remote parts of the North, so long strayed from good discipline either of church or commonwealth, that he fears it will need some labour to restrain them. But this he doubts not is foreseen, and will in due time be provided for: Down Patrick in Lecale, 9 Jul 1606. Signed. Lord Cromwell

In Dec 1606 Sir Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, was informed by the "Lords of the Council" in England that "His Majesty" would be "making him (Cromwell) of the Council of Ireland". Cromwell remained in Lecale for most of the following year, his health was getting worse and two days before he died he sent the following letter to Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury.

Lord Cromwell to the Earl of Salisbury.

Sept.22 1607: Leaves to the Deputy's letters and the report of Sir Oliver Lambard, the account of Tirone's flight and other occurrences concerning the same. Present needful defence must be made against such an enemy, having now so great a pawn and guide in his hand, his stated charge, which now may be hazarded standing next the fire which is likely to kindle in these north parts, where never wanted malice or means to effect any mischief. In any reinforcement of forces, asks for himself some more proportionable increase of strength. My Lord Deputy has certified, or may certify, that he, by his forwardness to frame the persons and their proceedings as might be most conformable to His Majesty's service and the good quiet of the country, has purchased little love, and expects less favour of this rebellious nation, if ever they get the overhand of him, from which so small a defence as he now has can hardly secure him. Is ashamed that he cannot present his love to him, either by such worthy means as he would preset or such presents as some parts of this country yieldeth, by hawk or horse, wherein the next season he hope will supply. Ed Cromwell.

Lord Edward Cromwell had lived long enough to see those whom he had fought against depart Ireland for ever, "the Flight of the Earls". His widow Frances informed the Lord Deputy, Arthur Chichester, on the 29th Sep "that her husband died Friday last".

The following Jul, Samuel Garey, a former servant, wrote to the Earl of Salisbury about, "the favours he received from the deceased Lord Cromwell, who made him his chaplain".

Frances, Cromwellís widow, later married Richard Wingfield, Viscount Powerscourt. Richard Wingfield was an officer that had served alongside her husband in the Netherlands, and had fought in the same wars as her husband in Ireland, seeing action at Kinsale under Mountjoy.

Edward Cromwellís son, Thomas, the new Lord Cromwell, Viscount Lecale and Earl of Ardglass, passed through his fatherís old manor of Oakham in 1631 where he partook of the ancient tradition of forfeiting a horse shoe in homage to the Lord of the Castle and Manor of Oakham. This shoe can be seen on display in the Castle today, amongst others forfeited by Royalty and a Lord Tollemache of the 19th Century. Lord Thomas Cromwell is buried at Tickencote, Rutland, 1653. His son Oliver, erected a Grave Memorial that can be seen in the porch of Down Cathedral today, close to where his grandfather is buried in the "ruined chancel" of Down Cathedral, 24th Sep 1607.

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Cromwell Stone  Cathedral of Down

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