1484-1492 Innocent VIII (Giambattista Cibo)
1492-1503 Alexander VI (Roderigo Borgia)
1503-1503 (Sep-Oct.) Pius III (Francesco Todeschini)
1503-1513 Julius II (Giulio della Rovere)
1513-1521 Leo X (Giovanni De' Medici)
1522-1523 Adrian VI (Adrian of Utrecht)
1523-1534 Clement VII (Giulio De' Medici)
1534-1549 Paul III (Alessandro Farnese)
1550-1555 Julius III (Giovanni del Monte)
1555-1556 Marcellus II (Marcello Cervini)
1556-1559 Paul IV (Pietro Caraffa)
1559-1565 Pius IV (Gian-Angelo De' Medici)
1565-1572 Pius V (Michele Ghislieri)
1572-1585 Gregory XIII (Ugo Buoncompagno)
1586-1590 Sixtus V (Felix Peretti)
1590-1590 Urban VIII (Giambattista Castagna)
1590-1591 Gregory XIV (Niccolo Sfondrato)
1591-1591 Innocent IX (Gian-Antonio Fachinetto)
1592-1605 Clement VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini)

Holy Roman Emperors

1440-1493 Frederick III of Habsburg
1493-1519 Maximilian I
1519-1556 Carlos V
1556-1564 Ferdinand I (brother of Charles V)
1564-1576 Maximilian II (son of Ferdinand I)
1576-1612 Rudolf II

Emperors of Japan

1465-1500 Gotsuchimikado
1500-1526 Gokashiwabara
1526-1557 Gonara
1557-1586 Ogimachi
1586-1611 Goyozei

Kings of Denmark and Norway

1481-1513 John I (Hans)
1513-1523 Christian II
1523-1533 Frederick I

1533-1559 Christian III

1559-1588 Frederick II
1588-1648 Christian IV

Kings of France

1483-1498 Charles VIII
1498-1515 Louis XII
1515-1547 Francois I
1547-1559 Henri II
1559-1560 Francois II
1560-1574 Charles IX (Catherine De Medici regent)
1574-1589 Henri III (Catherine De Medici regent)
1589-1610 Henri IV

Kings of Hungary

1458-1490 Matthias Corvinus the Just (Igazságos Mátyás)

1490-1516 Laszlo II Jagellon(also King of Bohemia)

1516–1526 Louis II Jagellon(also King of Bohemia)

1526-1564 Ferdinand I (also Holy Roman Emperor)

1526-1540 Janos Zápolya (alternatively spelled as Szapolyai.)

1540-1571 Janos II Sigismund Zápolya  (Prince of Transylvania)

Hungary was effectively split into 3 parts: a Habsburg domain in the north and west, Ottoman domain in the center, and the Ottoman satellite Transylvania in the east after 1562.

1564-1576 Maximilian II

1576-1612 Rudolf II

Kings of Poland

1447-1492 Casimir IV Jagellon

1492-1501 Jan I Albert Jagellon

1501-1506 Alexander I Jagellon

1506- 1548 Sigismund "the Old" Jagellon

1548-1572 Sigismund II August Jagellon

1572-1574 Henri De Valois (after Henri II of France)

1575-1586 Stephen Bathory

1586-1632 Sigismund Vasa (also King of Sweden)

1632-1648 Vladislav III Vasa

Kings of Portugal

1481-1495 Joao II
1495-1521 Manuel I
1521-1557 Joao III
1557-1578 Sebastian
1578-1580 Enrique
1580-1580 Antonio
under Spanish domination from 1580-1640

Kings and Queens of Scotland

1460-1488 James III
1488-1513 James IV
1513-1542 James V
1542-1567 Mary I (Marie De Guise regent)
1567-1625 James VI (James I of England 1603-1625)

Kings and Queens of Spain
(this one is complicated by the various regional titles in Spain)

1479-1504 Isabel of Castile (w/ Fernando of Aragon)
1479-1516 Fernando of Aragon (united Spain w/marriage to Isabel)
1516-1556 Carlos I of Spain (later Carlos V, Holy Roman Emperor)
1556-1598 Felipe II
1598-1621 Felipe III

Kings of Sweden

1470-1497 Sten Sture the Elder (regent)
1497-1501 John II of Denmark (Hans)
1501-1503 Sten Sture (regent)
1503-1512 Svante Nilsson Sture (regent)
1512-1520 Sten Sture the Younger (regent)
1520-1521 Christian II (also King of Norway and Denmark)
1521-1523 Gustavus Eriksson Vasa (regent)
1523-1560 Gustavus I
1560-1568 Eric XVI
1568-1592 John III
1592-1599 Sigismund Vasa
1599-1604 Carl IX (regent)

Sovreigns of the Dutch Republic

1579-1584 William I of Orange (known as William the Silent)
1584-1625 Maurice I of Orange

Tsars of Russia

???? - 1505 Ivan III
1505-1533 Basil III
1533-1584 Ivan IV ("The Terrible")
1584-1598 Theodore I
1598-1605 Boris Godunov

Dukes of Bavaria

1503–1508 Albretch IV

1508–1550 Wilhelm IV

1516–1545 Louis X jointly held with Wilhelm IV

1550–1579 Albretch V

1579-1597 Wilhelm V

1597-1623 Maximilian I

Dukes of Lorraine

1473-1508 René II
1508-1544 Anthony
1544-1545 Francois I
1545-1608 Charles III

Dukes and Electors of Saxony

Ernestine Electors of Saxony

1464-1486 Ernest

1486-1525 Frederick III, the Wise

1525-1532 Johan, the Steadfast

1532-1547 Johan Frederick

Albertine Dukes of Saxony

1486-1500 Albert Wettin, the Bold

1500-1539 George Wettin

1539-1541 Henry IV Wettin

1541-1547 Maurice (elector in 1547)

In 1547, following Emperor Carlos V's victory at the Battle of Mühlberg, Wittenberg and the Electoral dignity passed to the Albertine line. The Ernestine line continued to rule in southern Thuringian, but their lands eventually split up into many different tiny duchies, of which Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Altenburg lasted until 1918. This article does not list the subsequent Ernestine dukes.

Albertine Electors of Saxony

1547-1553 Maurice

1553-1586 Augustus

1586-1591 Christian I

1591-1611 Christian II

Electors of Brandenburg

1470-1486 Albert III Achilles

1486-1499 John Cicero

1499-1535 Joachim I Nestor

1535-1571 Joachim II Hector

1571-1598 John George

1598-1608 Joachim Frederick

Regents of the Netherlands/ Low Countries

1506-1507 Guillaume de Croy, Marquis d'Aerschot

1517-1530 Margaret of Austria
1531-1540 Mary of Hungary
1559-1567 Margaret of Parma
1567-1573 Fernando Alvarez De Toledo, Duke of Alba

1573-1576 Luis de Requesens y Zuñiga

1576-1578 Don Juan of Austria

1578-1581 Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza

In 1581 the United Provinces declared themselves independent of Spain.

Spanish Netherlands

1581-1592 Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza

1592-1594 Count Peter Ernst von Mansfeld

1594-1595 Archduke Ernest of Austria

1595-1596 Pedro Enríquez de Acevedo, Count of Fuentes

1596-1598 Archduke Albert of Austria

1598-1621 Archduke Albert of Austria and Infanta Isabella of Spain

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